December Redistricting Roundup: Where Things Stand in All 50 States
With 2021 rapidly coming to a close, we’re also nearing the halfway point in the decennial redistricting process — which means it’s time for another redistricting roundup. The vast majority of states have released new plans to redraw their congressional and legislative districts and many have approved plans that, barring future developments due to lawsuits, will be in place for 2022. Here’s an update of where redistricting — and redistricting litigation — stands in all 50 states, with key dates for each state included.
States With Approved Maps
Barring future court rulings, 23 states have given final approval to new district maps for the 2022 elections. Litigation, however, can always throw a few wrenches in the process — which it already has in several states. A few of the states we highlighted in the last roundup — Indiana, Iowa, Maine, Nebraska, Utah and West Virginia — don’t have any new updates since they completed redistricting, so they aren’t included here.
Meanwhile, the Ohio Supreme Court held oral arguments in three cases against the state’s legislative districts on Dec. 6. You can find a recap of the oral arguments and summaries of the cases in our Case Watch, “Fighting Partisan Gerrymandering in Ohio.”
States With Proposed, But Not Yet Approved Maps
Many states continue to work on finalizing new district lines, several with deadlines either at the end of the year or in January in advance of candidate filing periods. While some states like Michigan and Arizona are putting the final touches on new maps, others, like Pennsylvania, still have a long way to go. Included with every state are the current deadlines to adopt new maps. However, these deadlines aren’t always set in stone, since lawmakers or courts could still choose to modify them if needed.
A few of these states also already have litigation asking courts to intervene in redistricting. This is especially common in states where both parties have a hand in redistricting, increasing the likelihood a partisan stalemate will prevent the state from approving maps in time for next year’s elections.
Congressional: Jan. 1, 2022
Legislative: Jan. 1, 2022
On Dec. 9, the Arizona Independent Redistricting Commission voted to adopt new maps as bases for future iterations as it works to finalize boundaries before the end of the year. The new base congressional map is more favorable to Republicans than earlier proposals, with only two safely Democratic districts in a state President Biden won. The new base legislative map will have six competitive districts and 24 split evenly between Democrats and Republicans. The commission will continue to make adjustments to the maps before adopting final redistricting plans.
Congressional: Dec. 27, 2021
Legislative: Dec. 27, 2021
As expected, California’s proposed maps have changed drastically since they were released on Nov. 11. The state’s commission has been meeting six days a week on average since mid-November as it makes adjustments, a process that has drawn scrutiny from politicians and outside advocates alike. Even though nothing is final yet, the drafts have already led Rep. Devin Nunes (R) to announce his resignation from Congress and changed the political calculus for several other incumbent lawmakers.
Congressional: Feb. 15, 2022
Connecticut’s backup commission adopted a bipartisan deal to redraw state House districts on Nov. 18 that shifts districts towards western Connecticut to account for population changes. The plan earned unanimous approval from the commission. A new Senate map was similarly adopted unanimously on Nov. 23. While most Senate districts were relatively unchanged, Stamford gained a third senator and some rural districts were adjusted to accommodate new state law banning prison gerrymandering. While the commission missed its original Nov. 30 deadline to approve a congressional map, the state Supreme Court approved a request for an extension. If the commission fails to adopt a plan by Dec. 21, the state Supreme Court will take over redistricting.
Congressional: June 13, 2022
Legislative: June 13, 2022
While Florida doesn’t intend to finalize redistricting until the 2022 regular legislative session, the Republican-controlled state House and Senate have both released draft congressional maps and draft maps for their own chambers. The proposals released by the Senate shored up Republican districts with minimal changes to Democratic-held seats. The House proposals, on the other hand, are more aggressive, indicating genuine disagreements within the Florida GOP over how to redraw political boundaries in the state. New state legislative districts are subject to review by the Florida Supreme Court and may not favor a party or discriminate based on race.
Congressional: March 7, 2022
Legislative: March 7, 2022
We took a closer look at Georgia’s redistricting in our “Redistricting Rundown: Georgia,” highlighting how Republicans are using redistricting to maintain their partisan power in the face of demographic and political headwinds in the state. While Gov. Brian Kemp (R) has yet to sign the new districts into law, litigation is expected once he does so.
Congressional: Feb. 27, 2022
Legislative: Feb. 27, 2022
Hawaii’s Reapportionment Commission voted on Oct. 14 to adopt a congressional proposal for public feedback. The plan adjusts district boundaries on Oahu slightly. Likewise, the Commission adopted legislative proposals on Oct. 28. The Commission will collect public feedback through the end of the year before finalizing new districts.
Legislative: Feb. 27, 2022
The Democratic-controlled General Assembly voted to override Gov. Larry Hogan’s (R) veto of the state’s new congressional map on Dec. 9. The plan makes the district held by Maryland’s lone Republican in Congress, Rep. Andy Harris (R), more competitive by adding portions of Democratic-leaning Anne Arundel County. Gov. Hogan predicted his veto would be overridden and vowed to mount a legal challenge to the new districts. The General Assembly will consider legislative maps in its 2022 session beginning Jan. 13. Gov. Hogan will submit a proposed plan that will become law if the General Assembly does not pass its own plan within 45 days.
Congressional: Dec. 30, 2021
Legislative: Dec. 30, 2021
Michigan’s commission is currently soliciting feedback on 15 proposed redistricting plans for Congress and the Legislature. Final votes are expected later this month ahead of the deadline. However, observers expect litigation from all sides against the commission to begin once new maps are adopted. A major source of concern is how the commission chose to comply with the VRA by eliminating several majority-Black districts in the Detroit area. Other concerns include how the proposals treat communities of interest and their partisanship. Additionally, the Detroit Free Press and other media organizations filed a lawsuit on Dec. 7, asking the Michigan Supreme Court to order the commission to release memos related to voting rights, a recording of a closed-door discussion of those documents and other records withheld from the public. The commission is arguing that attorney-client privilege shields the group from disclosing legal advice. Oral arguments took place yesterday morning.
Congressional: Feb. 15, 2022
Legislative: Feb. 15, 2022
Minnesota Republicans and Democrats have released separate proposals to redraw the state’s districts, although neither are likely to go anywhere given that control of redistricting is split between the Democratic House, Republican Senate and Gov. Tim Walz (D). Final map drawing will likely end up with the courts, as it has every decade since 1980. In June, the chief justice of the Minnesota Supreme Court appointed a five-judge panel to handle redistricting litigation that is preparing to draw maps. The panel published the proposals of plaintiffs in the litigation on Dec. 7.
Congressional: March 1, 2022
Legislative: April 3, 2022
Mississippi plans to adopt new maps during its 2022 regular session. Efforts to redraw the congressional map will likely revolve around the need to increase the population of the 2nd District, represented by Rep. Benny Thompson (D), while complying with provisions of the VRA. The joint redistricting committee met on Dec. 15 to adopt a congressional plan ahead of the regular session. Work on the state’s legislative districts will likely wait until the congressional map is finalized.
Legislative: March 13, 2023
While Montana completed drawing congressional districts on Nov. 12 (with the state gaining a second district for the first time in decades), the state’s independent commission still needs to redraw legislative districts. The commission intends to take public comments on legislative maps throughout the spring and summer of 2022 before submitting a plan to the Legislature for review in early 2023.
Congressional: June 1, 2022
Legislative: June 1, 2022
On Nov. 16, the New Hampshire House Special Committee on Redistricting voted to advance the Republican proposals for new congressional and state House districts to the full state House, which will consider the plans when it reconvenes in January. The proposed congressional map represents a major overhaul of the state, shifting several Republican towns to the 1st District. Known in recent years for highly competitive House elections, the new map would likely eliminate competitive elections in the state for the next decade. Meanwhile, a Senate redistricting committee is working on a proposal to redraw the state Senate.
Congressional: Jan. 18, 2022
Legislative: March 1, 2022
Since our last update, both of New Jersey’s redistricting commissions have been holding public meetings to solicit testimony from state residents. The congressional commission held its final meeting on Dec. 9, while the legislative commission announced five more in January and February. Neither commission has released any proposals.
Legislative: Feb. 1, 2022
The New Mexico Legislature approved new congressional districts on Dec. 11, sending the plan to Gov. Michelle Lujan Grisham (D) for her signature. The plan substantially alters the district held by Rep. Yvette Herrell (R), boosting the Latino voting population in the district. New Mexico’s special session continues this week as the Legislature works on proposals for the state House and Senate.
Congressional: April 4, 2022
Legislative: April 4, 2022
New York’s advisory commission released drafts for new congressional, state Senate and state Assembly districts in September, one set of drafts proposed by Democrats and the other by Republicans. The commission intends to hold a final vote on Jan. 3. The Legislature, however, is free to reject the commission’s proposals and reports suggest Democrats are prepared to use their legislative supermajorities to do so.
Congressional: Jan. 24, 2022
Legislative: Jan. 24, 2022
Pennsylvania House Republicans unveiled their preliminary redistricting proposal on Dec. 8. The plan would eliminate one Democratic-leaning seat while holding the number of Republican-leaning and competitive seats steady — but a state House committee chose to table the proposal on Dec. 13 before releasing an updated map on Dec. 15. The state Senate intends to release its own version soon, a map sponsored by Sens. Sharif Street (D) and David Argall (R) that some Democrats allege is designed to bolster Sen. Street’s prospective congressional campaign by creating an incumbent-free district in Philadelphia at the expense of other Democrats. Any plan that passes the Republican-controlled Legislature, however, could be vetoed by Gov. Tom Wolf (D). If the governor and Legislature can’t agree on a proposal, the state Supreme Court will have to intervene. As work on the congressional map continues, Pennsylvania’s legislative districts are being redrawn by a five-member political commission.
Congressional: June 27, 2022
Legislative: June 27, 2022
Rhode Island is unexpectedly keeping its second congressional district, avoiding a potential showdown between Reps. David Cicilline (D) and James Langevin (D). The state’s reapportionment commission has yet to unveil how it intends to redraw the two districts, although it has released four proposals to redraw state Senate and House districts. The plans have drawn criticism for protecting incumbent legislators. The commission plans to make final recommendations to the General Assembly by Jan. 15.
Congressional: March 16, 2022
South Carolina began a special session to handle redistricting on Dec. 1. The Legislature approved new House and Senate districts on Dec. 9, sending the plans to Gov. Henry McMaster (R) for his signature. The new maps, however, have been flagged by civil rights and voting rights advocates for being heavily biased and devoid of competition — with just nine competitive House districts and one competitive Senate district. Lawmakers will vote on a congressional map in January. The state Senate Judiciary Redistricting Committee released a draft plan on Nov. 22 that would make the historically competitive 1st District more reliably Republican, likely leaving only one district in the state winnable for Democrats. The House released its own proposal on Dec. 15 that differs considerably from the Senate proposal and would keep Rep. Nancy Mace’s (R) district competitive.
Congressional: April 7, 2022
Legislative: April 7, 2022
Tennessee Democrats unveiled their proposal to redraw the state’s congressional districts on Nov. 15. Their version represents minimal changes from the current map, maintaining two Democratic districts around Nashville and Memphis while leaving the rest of the state in solidly Republican districts. But with redistricting fully controlled by Republicans, the proposal is likely dead on arrival. Republicans plan to release their own proposal in January when the Legislature reconvenes. Democrats fear Republicans will try to dismantle Rep. Jim Cooper’s (D) Nashville-based district. Rep. Cooper has vocally advocated that Nashville should be kept whole.
Congressional: Not applicable
Legislative: April 25, 2022
Vermont’s Apportionment Board adopted a final redistricting proposal for the state House on Nov. 23 and a final Senate proposal on Nov. 29. In a change from the old districts, the Board’s proposals abandoned multimember districts for both chambers. The Legislature is expected to make a final decision on new districts in the upcoming legislative session, which will begin on Jan. 4.
Congressional: March 21, 2022
Legislative: March 21, 2022
After failing to draw new districts, Virginia’s Redistricting Commission passed responsibility over to the Virginia Supreme Court. The Court appointed two special masters from nominees submitted by Democrats and Republicans to work together to craft new congressional and legislative maps for the justices to consider, although not before rejecting all three initial Republican nominees. The special masters released drafts of all three maps on Dec. 8. The state Supreme Court held a hearing on Dec. 15 will again on Dec. 17 to receive public comments. The congressional map reserved the most drastic changes to districts represented by women, with Rep. Abigail Spanberger’s (D) district eliminated and Rep. Jennifer Wexton’s (D) redrawn to extend much further south from its current base in Northern Virginia. It also creates a new district based in northern Virginia’s Prince William County, the state’s second-most populous locality.
Congressional: April 15, 2022
Legislative: April 15, 2022
Gov. Tony Evers (D) vetoed maps drawn by the Republican-controlled Legislature on Nov. 18 that would maintain the state’s extreme partisan gerrymander. Due to this impasse, it is highly likely that courts will end up stepping in and redrawing maps themselves. There are competing cases proceeding in federal court and the state Supreme Court to redraw the state’s districts, the first brought by Democrats and the second by Republicans. The U.S. Supreme Court denied a petition from the Legislature to stop the federal court case from proceeding. The Wisconsin Supreme Court, meanwhile, issued an order adopting the GOP’s proposal to use a “least-change” approach to redistricting and announced it would not consider partisanship when drawing new maps — an approach that could lock in the Republican advantage. The state Supreme Court will hold arguments in January. The federal court case has been stayed pending further action by the state Supreme Court.
States Without Proposed Maps
A handful of states have yet to propose new districts, with most putting off the bulk of work until next year. With no proposals yet, we can’t make any definitive predictions, but we can highlight what we might expect to see once map making gets underway. We also include each state’s current deadlines.
Congressional: June 1, 2022
Legislative: June 1, 2022
The biggest question in Kansas is whether Republicans in the Legislature will try to dismantle Rep. Sharice Davids’ (D) Johnson County-based district. Any new congressional map could be vetoed by Gov. Laura Kelly (D), although Republicans have the numbers to override a veto. Former Kansas Senate President Susan Wagle (R) was caught on tape last year proposing gerrymandering Rep. Davids out of Congress, although the current Senate President Ty Masterson (R) suggested he doesn’t share the same goals as his predecessor.
Congressional: Jan. 7, 2022
Legislative: Jan. 7, 2022
Republicans, who control the Legislature, could choose to target the Louisville district of retiring Rep. John Yarmuth (D), the state’s lone Democrat in Congress. While Gov. Andy Beshear (D) could veto a congressional map that does so, Republicans have the number needed to override him. Legislative Republicans have pushed for Gov. Beshear to call a special session to handle redistricting, but he has declined to do so unless he can see proposals ahead of time.
Congressional: July 22, 2022
Legislative: Dec. 31, 2022
Control of redistricting is split between the Republican-controlled Legislature and Gov. John Bel Edwards (D). The Legislature plans to hold a special session in February to draw new maps, but given the partisan split it’s possible map drawing will end up in the courts, with a case already underway to account for that possibility. Black Louisianans hope the new congressional districts will divide Baton Rouge and New Orleans into separate districts, a move that would likely create a second majority-Black district in a state where nearly one-third of the population is Black. Currently, both are in the 2nd District, represented by Rep. Troy Carter (D).
Congressional: Feb. 22, 2022
Legislative: Jan. 23, 2022
Although Missouri voters approved an amendment to reform the state’s legislative redistricting process in 2018, in 2020 another amendment passed that essentially undid the earlier reform. Amendment 3 reverts control back to two bipartisan commissions, one for each legislative chamber. Partisan tensions on both commissions, however, raise doubts that either will find a consensus by the deadline. The Legislature will not propose any new congressional maps until next year. While theoretically Republicans could flip the Kansas City-based district of Rep. Emanuel Cleaver (D), it’s not clear they intend to go that far and they may settle for making Rep. Ann Wagner’s (R) district safer.
Congressional: Not applicable
Legislative: End of 2022 Budget Session
While major action is not expected until next year, Wyoming has taken the first steps to redraw legislative districts by launching a portal for residents to submit maps. Lawmakers also decided to take a regional approach to redistricting, appointing regional representatives to create smaller scale maps ahead of a unified proposal expected in January.
2021 was a busy year for redistricting, but this once-a-decade process isn’t over yet. Stay tuned in the new year for more updates and commentary.